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ISSN 0869-5377
Author: Zaitseva Olga

Zaitseva Olga

Clinical psychologist, psychoanalyst. E-mail:


From Locke to Lacan / Logos. 2016. № 6 (115). P. 115-126
annotation:  The article was written in order to acquaint the reader with the nonstandard logic that can be built on the basis of the Freudian concept of the unconscious. In this article, the concept is read in a Lacanian fashion. The notion of the unconscious is regarded in contraposition to the equality of consciousness and thought that is introduced, for example, by John Locke in his Essay concerning human understanding. The author cites two approaches to doubting this equality: the idea proposed by Leibniz (on infinitely small perceptions, inaccessible to consciousness); and the idea proposed by Freud, (that there exists a principal rupture between a thought and knowledge about this thought). The main argument made in this article is that Freudian unconscious is not a simple negation of consciousness, and that a subject’s position is determined precisely by the thoughts that he does not know of, i.e. unconscious thoughts. As an illustration, the author analyses the effect that is produced by looking at Édouard Mane’s Olympia — the effect resulting from the fact that light on the picture makes the viewer’s gaze obvious for the viewer himself. The author draws several conclusions relating to the specifics of modified logic, which would have to take into account the existence of unconscious thoughts. This logic is based on the assumption that qualities of an object by itself and qualities of an object in a certain space may di er. Jacques Lacan’s texts allow us to suggest that this difference is introduced through language. The article represents an attempt to revise traditional ideas about the functions of negation. The revision is summarized in an analysis of the hide and seek game, in which the fact that the subject knows where the hidden thing is does not mean that he has found it.
Keywords:  identity of consciousness and thinking; unconscious thoughts; modi ed logic; John Locke; Sigmund Freud; Jacques Lacan
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