ru | En
PHILOSOPHICAL
LITERARY
JOURNAL
ISSN 0869-5377
Author: Teslya Andrey

Teslya Andrey

Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Cultural Science, mestr81@gmail.com. National University (PNU), 134 Tryokhgornaya str., 680034 Khabarovsk, Russia.

Publications

The “Myth of the Jesuits” in their Absence: Russia, the 1860s / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 47-64
annotation:  Political myths about conspiracies first appeared in the 19th century, primarily in the form of three “big” myths involving Masons, Jesuits and Jews, which in turn prompted the emergence a series of derivatives, such as the “Judeo-Masonic Conspiracy.” A remarkable feature of the Russian version of the myth about Jesuits, which spread widely through many different societal layers and audiences in the 1860s, is that it was — unlike the French version, for example — created in the absence of Jesuits: the order had already been driven out — first from the capital and subsequently from the entire empire — by the end of the reign of Alexander I. This peculiarity has generated a series of characteristic features of the Russian version: without the possibility of relating it to any kind of real referent, the Russian “Jesuit” became a universal entity that could, depending on the situation, replace any other, thereby creating a system of correspondences. The characteristics of the mythological “Jesuit” were applied to entities that were seen as identical, such as “the Pole,” “the Catholic,” “the Priest,” etc. Conversely, the Jesuit could also function as an assertion of non-identity. An example of this juxtaposition would be the image of the good Catholic shepherd who is far removed from Jesuit practices. The myth made it possible to sustain conflicting positions regarding the Catholic church (and, correspondingly, different government policies), ranging from equating it with the Jesuits, who in this case served as exemplary followers of the Catholic faith, following Catholic principles to the letter, to a defensive position against a shrewd and belligerent “Jesuitism” that aims to take over Catholicism. The functional appeal of the myth was related to the opportunity it provided to employ the ideological resources of other groups. Thus, the clerics or the defenders of Orthodoxy could use Enlightenment rhetoric, while anti-clericals could invoke the positions of the Orthodox Church, etc. Losing political relevance quickly, the Jesuit myth later proved to be an effective tool for the legitimation of new versions of the political myth, such as myths about a Jewish plot, forcing opponents to move from the deconstruction of any particular myth to a generalized critique of conspiracy theories.
Keywords:  Walter Scott; Jesuits; Honoré de Balzac; political myth; Slavophiles; Black Legend; Yuri Samarin
“The problem we are solving today has to do with something utterly unjust.” / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 149-164
annotation: 
Keywords: 

Teslya Andrey

Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Cultural Science, mestr81@gmail.com. National University (PNU), 134 Tryokhgornaya str., 680034 Khabarovsk, Russia.

Publications

The “Myth of the Jesuits” in their Absence: Russia, the 1860s / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 47-64
annotation:  Political myths about conspiracies first appeared in the 19th century, primarily in the form of three “big” myths involving Masons, Jesuits and Jews, which in turn prompted the emergence a series of derivatives, such as the “Judeo-Masonic Conspiracy.” A remarkable feature of the Russian version of the myth about Jesuits, which spread widely through many different societal layers and audiences in the 1860s, is that it was — unlike the French version, for example — created in the absence of Jesuits: the order had already been driven out — first from the capital and subsequently from the entire empire — by the end of the reign of Alexander I. This peculiarity has generated a series of characteristic features of the Russian version: without the possibility of relating it to any kind of real referent, the Russian “Jesuit” became a universal entity that could, depending on the situation, replace any other, thereby creating a system of correspondences. The characteristics of the mythological “Jesuit” were applied to entities that were seen as identical, such as “the Pole,” “the Catholic,” “the Priest,” etc. Conversely, the Jesuit could also function as an assertion of non-identity. An example of this juxtaposition would be the image of the good Catholic shepherd who is far removed from Jesuit practices. The myth made it possible to sustain conflicting positions regarding the Catholic church (and, correspondingly, different government policies), ranging from equating it with the Jesuits, who in this case served as exemplary followers of the Catholic faith, following Catholic principles to the letter, to a defensive position against a shrewd and belligerent “Jesuitism” that aims to take over Catholicism. The functional appeal of the myth was related to the opportunity it provided to employ the ideological resources of other groups. Thus, the clerics or the defenders of Orthodoxy could use Enlightenment rhetoric, while anti-clericals could invoke the positions of the Orthodox Church, etc. Losing political relevance quickly, the Jesuit myth later proved to be an effective tool for the legitimation of new versions of the political myth, such as myths about a Jewish plot, forcing opponents to move from the deconstruction of any particular myth to a generalized critique of conspiracy theories.
Keywords:  Walter Scott; Jesuits; Honoré de Balzac; political myth; Slavophiles; Black Legend; Yuri Samarin
“The problem we are solving today has to do with something utterly unjust.” / Logos. 2017. № 4 (119). P. 149-164
annotation: 
Keywords: 
All authors

© 1991—2020 Логос. Философско-литературный журнал.
Все права защищены.
Дизайн Юлия Михина, jmikhina@gmail.com,
программирование Антон Чубченко