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PHILOSOPHICAL
LITERARY
JOURNAL
ISSN 0869-5377
Author: Rozhdestvenskaya Elena

Rozhdestvenskaya Elena

PhD in Sociology, Professor at the Analysis of Social Institutions Department of the Faculty of Social Sciences of the School of Sociology of the National Research University— Higher School of Economics. Address: 9/11 Myasnitskaya Str., 101990 Moscow, Russia. E-mail: erozhdestvenskaya@hse.ru.

Publications

The Phenomenon of Taharrush as Collective Sexual Violence / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 157-190
annotation:  The article analyses the phenomenon of collective sexual violence which was clearly manifested in Germany and is associated with the influx of refugees and migrants in the last few years. In seeking to explain this phenomenon as the export of gendered forms of violence, the author explores its origins by means of a secondary analysis of monitoring data, tracking the escalation and discontinuities in the practice of applying sexualized violence associated with the political struggle during the two Egyptian revolutions. The conjunction of gender, ethnicity, social problems and the crisis of power that appears in a number of monitoring studies indicates that political values were introduced into sexualized violence or that sexual violence was converted by political forces into an instrument in the struggle for power. The practice of collective sexual violence called taharrush and its legitimation in the discursive space of modern Arabic culture have taken shape in this particular context.
The practice of taharrush has contributed for a decade directly and indirectly (through discursive legitimations) to the masculine socialization of young generations of Arabic men. This type of masculine socialization is built on certain social norms that justify the use of violence against “transgressors” and establish moral and religious boundaries for women, and it is also associated with the potential for performing violent acts in public spaces. The experience of participation in the Tahrir uprising as a symbolic achievement of hegemonic masculinity made it possible for those who were subjected to economic deprivation through unemployment to compensate for the gaps in their masculinity and thereby restore male hierarchies. Reconstruction of the Taharrush phenomenon in the different, more Western context of emigration may be explained not only by the economic, social, psychological, and sexual deprivation of refugees from the Arabic world, but also as a form of socialization through equivalent direct and indirect practices.

Keywords:  sexualized violence; taharrush; publicity; instrumentalization of violence; struggle for power; west-east.
Representation of Cultural Trauma: The Museification of the Holocaust / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 87-114
annotation:  The article analyzes the problem of the representation of one of the greatest cultural traumas of the twentieth century — the Holocaust — in various Jewish museums (Washington, Berlin, Moscow). Although they are united by the important social function of perpetuation and edification, each museum has its own context and creates its own form of representation and rhetoric, as well as the measure of memory performance about the events of Jewish history. The concepts and exhibitions of these museums are embedded in a context of general social debate about the trauma, its principal expressibility, mediatization and visualization. The research field of trauma contains an internal contradiction. On the one hand, the field employs the psychoanalytic idea of the inexpressible injury (Theodor Adorno, Jean-François Lyotard, Shoshana Felman, Dori Laub, Cathy Caruth et al.), while, on the other hand, subscribing to the concept of its globalization and mediatization (Wulf Kansteiner, Ann Kaplan, Jeffrey Aleksander, Andreas Huyssen). The discourse about the Holocaust is globalized, but the memory of the Holocaust victims is functioning glocally, taking into account the specific local context of traumatic events. Consequently, the museification of the Holocaust generates a diverse field of aesthetic representations. The article stresses the peculiarity of these museums, such as their focus on sensual work with the past, their call for the exchange of experiences and emotions in addition to rational knowledge, their invitation to identify with the experience. In comparison to museums, it becomes evident that modern museum exhibitions and performances variably provoke the visitor to identify with the collective subject of history through a simulated experience of the suffering of others. This is impossible without emotions, sympathy and working memory. However, the therapeutically simulated traumatization through acquaintance with the phenomenon of the Holocaust is not justified in any socio-political and cultural context.
Keywords:  cultural trauma; representation; the Holocaust Museum; memory.
Transmedial Storytelling in Search for a “Russian National Idea” / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 197-223
annotation:  This article examines the potential of transmedial storytelling to analyze the national Imagination on the basis of deliberative public debates involving opinions, ideas, narratives and images of various social groups. The article is based on the presentation of Denis Saunin’s and George Mamin’s sculpture Russia. Try to kill! (СF Art Group) at the 2013 Venice Art Biennale. The author starts by looking at this art object, created on the basis of the All-Russian competition of art concepts on the topic of “the Russian National Idea.” The object of visual analysis contains a dynamic political representation: the unification of the images of a sovereign’s orb and a traditional tilting doll, creating a provocative effect alongside the slogan Try to kill!, resulting in an aggressive counter-game with the viewer. Textual analysis is conducted with 458 art ideas which were submitted to the contest and which have shown a significant range of substantial references for understanding the national idea of Russia. The next stage of the textual analysis focused on the selected of art concepts representing a storytelling or narrative description of the art object. The most widespread symbols are state symbols, family and children, Christian symbols, living images, anthroposentric images, reflecting a traditional and archaic complex of ideas. Thus, the national unifying idea is visually aggressive, and also substantially traditional, as if to say that it is better for Russians to live in the shadow of the state, of Christianity, in combination with elements of their pagan heritage, with their family and their children.
Keywords:  storytelling; transmedial; national idea; collective identity; textual analysis; visual analysis

Rozhdestvenskaya Elena

Professor, Analysis of Social Institutions Department, Faculty of Social Sciences, School of Sociology; Leading Research Fellow, Department of Qualitative Studies of Social Changes, erozhdestvenskaya@hse.ru.
National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE), 9/11 Myasnitskaya str., 101990 Moscow, Russia.
Institute of Sociology of the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 24/35 Krzhizhanovskogo str., Bldg 5, 117218 Moscow, Russia.

Publications

The Phenomenon of Taharrush as Collective Sexual Violence / Logos. 2018. № 4 (125). P. 157-190
annotation:  The article analyses the phenomenon of collective sexual violence which was clearly manifested in Germany and is associated with the influx of refugees and migrants in the last few years. In seeking to explain this phenomenon as the export of gendered forms of violence, the author explores its origins by means of a secondary analysis of monitoring data, tracking the escalation and discontinuities in the practice of applying sexualized violence associated with the political struggle during the two Egyptian revolutions. The conjunction of gender, ethnicity, social problems and the crisis of power that appears in a number of monitoring studies indicates that political values were introduced into sexualized violence or that sexual violence was converted by political forces into an instrument in the struggle for power. The practice of collective sexual violence called taharrush and its legitimation in the discursive space of modern Arabic culture have taken shape in this particular context.
The practice of taharrush has contributed for a decade directly and indirectly (through discursive legitimations) to the masculine socialization of young generations of Arabic men. This type of masculine socialization is built on certain social norms that justify the use of violence against “transgressors” and establish moral and religious boundaries for women, and it is also associated with the potential for performing violent acts in public spaces. The experience of participation in the Tahrir uprising as a symbolic achievement of hegemonic masculinity made it possible for those who were subjected to economic deprivation through unemployment to compensate for the gaps in their masculinity and thereby restore male hierarchies. Reconstruction of the Taharrush phenomenon in the different, more Western context of emigration may be explained not only by the economic, social, psychological, and sexual deprivation of refugees from the Arabic world, but also as a form of socialization through equivalent direct and indirect practices.

Keywords:  sexualized violence; taharrush; publicity; instrumentalization of violence; struggle for power; west-east.
Representation of Cultural Trauma: The Museification of the Holocaust / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 87-114
annotation:  The article analyzes the problem of the representation of one of the greatest cultural traumas of the twentieth century — the Holocaust — in various Jewish museums (Washington, Berlin, Moscow). Although they are united by the important social function of perpetuation and edification, each museum has its own context and creates its own form of representation and rhetoric, as well as the measure of memory performance about the events of Jewish history. The concepts and exhibitions of these museums are embedded in a context of general social debate about the trauma, its principal expressibility, mediatization and visualization. The research field of trauma contains an internal contradiction. On the one hand, the field employs the psychoanalytic idea of the inexpressible injury (Theodor Adorno, Jean-François Lyotard, Shoshana Felman, Dori Laub, Cathy Caruth et al.), while, on the other hand, subscribing to the concept of its globalization and mediatization (Wulf Kansteiner, Ann Kaplan, Jeffrey Aleksander, Andreas Huyssen). The discourse about the Holocaust is globalized, but the memory of the Holocaust victims is functioning glocally, taking into account the specific local context of traumatic events. Consequently, the museification of the Holocaust generates a diverse field of aesthetic representations. The article stresses the peculiarity of these museums, such as their focus on sensual work with the past, their call for the exchange of experiences and emotions in addition to rational knowledge, their invitation to identify with the experience. In comparison to museums, it becomes evident that modern museum exhibitions and performances variably provoke the visitor to identify with the collective subject of history through a simulated experience of the suffering of others. This is impossible without emotions, sympathy and working memory. However, the therapeutically simulated traumatization through acquaintance with the phenomenon of the Holocaust is not justified in any socio-political and cultural context.
Keywords:  cultural trauma; representation; the Holocaust Museum; memory.
Transmedial Storytelling in Search for a “Russian National Idea” / Logos. 2015. № 3 (105). P. 197-223
annotation:  This article examines the potential of transmedial storytelling to analyze the national Imagination on the basis of deliberative public debates involving opinions, ideas, narratives and images of various social groups. The article is based on the presentation of Denis Saunin’s and George Mamin’s sculpture Russia. Try to kill! (СF Art Group) at the 2013 Venice Art Biennale. The author starts by looking at this art object, created on the basis of the All-Russian competition of art concepts on the topic of “the Russian National Idea.” The object of visual analysis contains a dynamic political representation: the unification of the images of a sovereign’s orb and a traditional tilting doll, creating a provocative effect alongside the slogan Try to kill!, resulting in an aggressive counter-game with the viewer. Textual analysis is conducted with 458 art ideas which were submitted to the contest and which have shown a significant range of substantial references for understanding the national idea of Russia. The next stage of the textual analysis focused on the selected of art concepts representing a storytelling or narrative description of the art object. The most widespread symbols are state symbols, family and children, Christian symbols, living images, anthroposentric images, reflecting a traditional and archaic complex of ideas. Thus, the national unifying idea is visually aggressive, and also substantially traditional, as if to say that it is better for Russians to live in the shadow of the state, of Christianity, in combination with elements of their pagan heritage, with their family and their children.
Keywords:  storytelling; transmedial; national idea; collective identity; textual analysis; visual analysis
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