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ISSN 0869-5377
Author: Faybyshenko Viktoriya

Faybyshenko Viktoriya

Senior researcher, Russian Research Institute for Cultural and Natural Heritage, 2 Kosmonavtov str., 129366 Moscow, Russia.


Things Without Words, Totality Without the Private. The Soviet Philosophy of Evald Ilyenkov / Logos. 2017. № 5 (120). P. 45-64
annotation:  What is the “Soviet trauma” in philosophy? We consider the case of Evald Ilyenkov, а Marxist who stood against positivism and physicalism in understanding the human mind. Ilyenkov discussed the political and socio-anthropological consequences of positivism, both for the West and the Soviet system. Ilyenkov’s social and methodological criticism is based on his pedagogical theory of personality and presupposes a utopia of the full personal appropriation of the universal. His pedagogy is a mix of materialistic psychology and transcendental philosophy. Ilyenkov’s pedagogical utopia is also a key to his political utopia. According to Ilyenkov, only a cultural revolution that moves beyond socialism will overcome alienation. He understood the alienation of human beings as an alienation from the total nature of mankind. Alienation is a product of private property in a broad sense. The principle of private property implies a positivist logic, which in its turn produces technocratism. Ilyenkov opposes the scientistic logic of adding up particular facts to the dialectic logic of proceeding from the whole. The rightly educated person reconstitutes the whole and transgresses the principle of particularity. The last principle is considered as the main feature and the main vice of modern society. Ilyenkov avoided the question whether any mode of power (and violence) is produced by this logic of the whole. To investigate this question, we invoke Ilyenkov’s works that previously have not been considered as having political meaning. Based on this extended corpus, we try to reconstruct Ilyenkov’s system of political philosophy.
Keywords:  Evald Ilyenkov; Soviet philosophy; positivism; socialism; project; personality; the universal; the ideal; the private; the whole; alienation
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