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ISSN 0869-5377
The Logos Journal

The Politics of Falling

Author: Bull Malcolm

About author:
Professor of Art and the History of Ideas, Ruskin School of Art, University of Oxford. Address: 74 High Street, OX1 4BG Oxford, UK. E-mail:

In this article, Malcolm Bull responds to his critics and analyzes their claims. Bull believes that Nietzsche combines two arguments, the transcendental and the materialist (or biological), and that the latter could be challenged. The negative ecology of value demands a leveling of the world which may still lose more of its sense. In his answer to Raymond Geuss, Bull suggests that being unranked depends upon some evaluation, at least from Nietzsche’s point of view of not equating the valuation to explicit opinion. In answer to the argument about the theory of need, Bull contends that his extraegalitarianism should be understood as a process rather than as a final state at which the substantive ranking of needs should be defined. Bull goes on to claim that the question of the “ghost” as well as the issue of efficiency and optimality point to a metaphysical dimension in the arguments of his critics. Politics might be more like a fall than like a building or a theory standing upon a foundation. In returning to the question of Heidegger’s and Nietzsche’s ecology of values, Bull insists that Heidegger admits that differences between species is analogous to the border of German nation, and therefore it is not always self-evident that man cannot actually become lesser than himself. Subhumanism makes the world less and less welcoming to Being. In his answer to the Aristotelian argument about exclusion from discourse, Bull affirms that such an exclusion is the point of his project.

Keywords: Malcolm Bull; Anti-Nietzsche; transcendental argument; falling; negative ecology; distributive justice

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